Indian polity is very important section of all UPSC and SSC exams. In this article we will discuss Sources of Indian constitution. Knowing Indian polity not just help you to fetch good marks but also to know countries government functioning better.
Indian constitution is world’s largest written constitution. It is derived from various countries constitution. India constitution is world’s most detailed written document describing role of state government and center government and judicial and executive department. Indian constitution was adopted in 26th November 1949 and completely enacted in 26th January 1950.
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Sources of Indian constitution
- USA : We have taken following topics from constitution of United States of America. Preamble of constitution, Fundamental rights, Judicial review, Separation of powers between center and state, Independence of judiciary, Office of the resident.
- Canada : the following concepts are derived from Canada. federation with strong center, Residuary power with center. Residuary powers are those powers which are not mentioned in anywhere in state list, union list or concurrent list. Appointment of state governor by center and advisory role of supreme court.
- Government of India act : Approximately 70% of the constitution is taken from Government of India act 1935. Service commission like upsc, federal structure of the country, office of governor, power division of judiciary.
- Britain : The following concepts of the constitution is taken from the constitution of the great Britain . Parliamentary system of government, Rule of law, Single citizenship, Office of the comptroller and auditor general of India, Legislation, Cabinet form of government, Bicameral;ism of the house. Single citizenship means a person is citizen of India only unlike USA where a person is citizen of USA and also the citizen of the state where he lives.
- Germany : Emergency provisions including suspension of fundamental rights during emergency. Right to privacy is an absolute fundamental rights under article 21 as per landmark Supreme court judgement in 2017.
- Former USSR : The concept of fundamental duties are taken from former USSR. There are 11 fundamental duties mentioned in constitution of India. Fundamental duties are added by 42nd amendment act of 1976. Fundamental duties were recommended by Swarn singh committee.
- Australia : The concept of Concurrent list, Commerce and interstate trade, Joint sitting of parliament are taken from Australia.
- South Africa : Amendment procedure of the constitution, Indirect election of rajya sabha member are taken from South Africa.
- Japan : Procedure established by law.
- Ireland : Directive principles of state policy, Election process of president, Nomination of members to Loksabha and rajya sabha is taken from Irish constitution.
- France :Concept of Liberty, Equality, fraternity are taken from constitution of France.
Salient feature of Indian constitution
- Indian constitution is world’s lengthiest constitution.
- Quasi federal structure – Indian constitution is quasi federal in nature. It works as federal form of government in normal days but in emergency it works as unitary form of government. Center become all powerful.
- Independent judiciary acts independently.
- Secular state : It means state doesn’t have its own religion. It respects and allows all religion. State doesn’t discriminate people on the basis of religion.
- Three tier government- India has the only country which have three tier of government. By the amendment of 73rd and 74th amendment act local government was introduced. 73rd for village panchayat and 74th for municipalities.
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